q + a




newq + atestingarticlesbooksexperienceslinks

A Review of the non-medical use of Ketamine: Part 1: Use, Users and Consequences

Jansen, K. L. R. (2001) A review of the non-medical use of ketamine: part 1: use, users and consequences. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs (in press)

1. Abstract and introduction

2. Ketamine and the dance culture

3. The doors of dissociation

4. Near-death and near-birth experiences

5. Toxic effects

6. Physical effects

7. Conclusions and references


There are indications from a variety of sources that non-medical use of ketamine has increased in the last 15 years, linked with the growth of the dance culture and 'alternative spirituality' movement. The drug has many psychedelic effects. It is important that those who are involved in the treatment of ketamine related problems understand the reasons why this drug is taken, as well as having a realistic understanding of the possible adverse effects. The view that ketamine is a drug only taken by masochistic, bored 'space cadets' who seek 'bad trips', an impression created by some media reports and drug agency leaflets, is far too narrow. The drug provides new insights into aspects of the brain/mind interface such as the NDE and dreaming, and also into human disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The psychedelic effects may have therapeutic value in some cases, and be harmful in others.


Abajian, J.C.; Page, P. & Morgan, M. 1973. Effects of droperidol and nitrazepam on emergence reactions following ketamine anesthesia. Anesthesia and Analgesia; Current Researches 52, 385-9.

Adler, C.M., Malhotra, A.K., Elma, I., Goldberg, T., Egan, M., Pickar, D., & Breier, A. 1999. Comparison of ketamine-induced thought disorder in healthy volunteers and thought disorder in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156 (10), 1646-1649.

Ahmed, S.N. & Petchkovsky, L. 1980. Abuse of ketamine. British Journal of Psychiatry 137, 303.

Anand, A.; Charney, D. S.; Oren, D.A.; Berman, R.M.; Hu, X.S.; Cappiello, A. & Krystal, J.H. 2000. Attenuation of the neuropsychiatric effects of ketamine and lamotrigine: support for hyperglutamatergic effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 270-276.

Anon. 1997. Ketamine: The Hot New Drug of Abuse. Forensic Drug Abuse Advisor 9 ( 6) 10-20.

Antal, M.; Musci, G. & Faludi, A. 1978. Ketamine anaesthesia & intraocular pressure. Annals Opthalmology 10, 1281-1289.

Arvanov, V.L. & Wang, R.Y. 1998. M100907, a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist and a potential antipsychotic drug, facilitates N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor mediated neuro-transmission in the rat medial prefrontal cortical neurons in vitro. Neuropsychopharmacology 18 (3): 197-209

Ashley, R. 1978. Avant-garde highs. High Times, 31, 62-64.

Auer R.N.; Coupland, S.G.; Jason, G. W.; Archer, D.P.; Payne, J.; Belzberg, A.J.; Ohtaki, M.& Tranmer, B.I. 1996. Postischemic therapy with MK-801 (dizocilpine) in a primate model of transient focal brain ischaemia. Molecular and Chemical Neuropathology 29 (2-3):193-210.

Australian Bureau of Criminal Intelligence 1995. Australian Illicit Drug Report 1994. Australian Bureau of Criminal Intelligence, Canberra.

Australian Bureau of Criminal Intelligence 2000. Australian Illicit Drug Report 1998-99. Australian Bureau of Criminal Intelligence, Canberra.

Bartus, R.T.;Dean, R.L. & Flicker, R.C. 1987. Cholinergic psychopharmacology: an integration of human and animal research on memory, in:Meltzer, H.Y. (Ed.) Psychopharmacology: The Third Generation of Progress, pp219-233 (New York, Raven Press).

Benveniste, H.; Drejer, J.; Schouseboe, A. & Diemer, H. 1984. Elevation of extracellular concentrations of glutamate & aspartate in rat hippocampus during cerebral ischaemia monitored by microdialysis. Journal Neurochemistry 43, 1369 - 1374.

Berman, R.M.; Cappiello, A.; Anand, A.; Oren, D.A.;Heninger, G.R.; Charney, D.S,. & Krystal, J.H. 2000. Antidepressant effects of ketamine in depressed patients. Biological Psychiatry 47 (4) 351-4.

Borgbjerg, F.M.; Svensson, B.A; Frigast, C. & Gordh, T. 1994. Histopathology after repeated intrathecal injections of preservative-free ketamine in the rabbit: a light and electron microscopic examination. Anesthesia Analgesia 79(1):105-111

Brown, L.P. 1995. Pulse Check: National Trends in Drug Abuse - Fall , Office Of National Drug Control Policy, Washington.

Calderone, L.; Grimes, P. & Shalev, M. 1986. Acute reversible cataract induced by xylazine and by ketamine-xylazine anesthesia in rats and mice. Experimental Eye Research 42, 331-7.

Carpenter, W.T. 1999. The schizophrenia ketamine challenge study debate. Biological Psychiatry 46, 1081-1091.

Cloud, J. 1997. "Is Your Kid on K?" Time Magazine, 20/10/1997, pp. 56-57 -USA and Pacific editions only (but posted on World Wide Web)

Connell, P. H. 1958. Amphetamine psychosis. Institute of Psychiatry Maudsley Monographs 5, O.U.P.

Corbett D. 1990. Ketamine blocks the plasticity associated with prefrontal cortex self-stimulation. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behaviour. 37 (4): 685-688

Cosmopolitan. 1997. Sedate rape. Cosmopolitan 25th Anniversary issue. March, 1997, p109.

Cotman, C. W.; Monaghan, D.. & Ganong, A. 1988. Excitatory amino acid neurotransmission : NMDA receptors and Hebb-type synaptic plasticity. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 11, 61-80.

Coyle, J.T. 1997. The nagging question of the function of N-acetylaspartylglutamate. Neurobiology of Disease 4 (3-4):231-8.

Crysell, A. 1998. Lost in the K-hole. Muzik 40, September 1998, 45-48. (contact: HYPERLINK "" )

Curran V. & Morgan, C. 2000. Cognitive, dissociative and psychogenic effects of ketamine in recreational users on the night of drug use and 3 days later. Addiction. 95, 575-590.

Dalgarno, P. J. & Shewan, D. 1996. Illicit Use of Ketamine in Scotland. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 28, 191-199.

DEA. 1997. Ketamine Abuse Increasing.

Dershwitz, M.; Sreter, F.A. & Ryan, J.F. 1989. Ketamine does not trigger malignant hyperthermia in susceptible swine. Anesthesia & Analgesia 69(4):501-503

Dixon, J.F.; Los, G. V. & Hokin, L. E. 1994. Lithium stimulates glutamate "release" and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate accumulation via activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in monkey and mouse cerebral cortex slices. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U S A. 91(18):8358-8362

Domino, E. F.; Chodoff, P. & Corssen, G. 1965. Pharmacologic effects of CI-581, a new dissociative anesthetic, in man. Clinical and Pharmacological Therapeutics 6, 279-291.

Dotson, J.W., Ackerman, D.L., & West, L.J. 1995. Ketamine abuse. Journal of Drug Issues, 25, 751-757.

Dragunow, M.; Currie, R.W.; Faull, R.L.M.; Robertson, H.A. & Jansen, K.L.R. 1989. Immediate early genes, kindling and longterm potentiation. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 13, 301-313.

Drejer, J. & Honore, T. 1987. Phencyclidine analogues inhibit NMDA-stimulated [3H]GABA release from cultured cortex neurons. European Journal of Pharmacology 143, 287-290.

Durieux, M.E. & Nietgen, G.W. 1997. Synergistic inhibition of muscarinic signalling by ketamine stereoisomers and the preservative benzthonium chloride. Anesthesiology 86(6):1326-1333

Ebert, B., Mikkelson, S., Thorkildsen, C. & Borgbjerg, F.M. 1997. Norketamine, the main metabolite of ketamine, is a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist in the rat cortex and spinal cord, European Journal Pharmacology, 333, 99-104.

Ellison, G. 1995. The N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists phencyclidine, ketamine and dizocilpine as both behavioral and anatomical models of the dementias, Brain Research Reviews, 20, 250-267.

Engelhardt, W. 1997. Recovery and psychomimetic reactions following S- (+)-ketamine. Anesthetist 46 Supplement 1:S38-S42.

Evans, W. S. 1998. Ontogenesis of auditory perception and memory at 20 weeks' gestation. Abstracts of the 1998 Annual Conference of the British Psychological Society, Brighton, p8.

Farber, N.B.;Foster, J.; Duhan, N.L. & Olney, J.W. 1996. Olanzapine and fluperlapine mimic clozapine in preventing MK-801 neurotoxicity. Schizophrenia Research 21(1):33-37.

Farber, N.B.; Hanslick, J.; Kirby, C.; McWilliams, L. & Olney, J.W. 1998. Serotonergic agents that activate 5HT2A receptors prevent NMDA antagonist neurotoxicity. Neuropsychopharmacology 18 (1):57-62

Farber, P. 1995. Futureritual : Magick for the 21st Century. Chicago: Eschaton Productions.

FDA. 1979. Ketamine Abuse. FDA Drug Bulletin 9, 24.

Feinberg, I. & March, J.D. 1995. Observations on delta homeostasis, the one-stimulus model of NREM-REM alternation and the neurobiologic implications of experimental dream studies. Behavioral Brain Research 69 (1-2): 97-108

Feldman, Z.;Gurevitch, B.;Artru, A.; Oppenheim, A.;Shohami, E.; Reichenthal, E. & Shapira, Y. 1996. Effect of magnesium given 1 hour after head trauma on brain edema and neurological outcome. Journal of Neurosurgery 85(1):131-137

Felser, J. M. & Orban, D. J. 1982. Dystonic reaction after ketamine abuse. Annals of Emergency Medicine 11, 673-674.

Fine, J. & Finestone, E. C. 1973. Sensory disturbances following ketamine anaesthesia: recurrent hallucinations. Anesthesia and Analgesia (Cleveland.) 53, 428.

Ghoneim, M. M.; Hinrichs, J. V.; Mewaldt, S. P. & Peterson, R. C. 1985. Ketamine: behavioral effects of subanaesthetic doses. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 5, 70-77.

Gibson, W. 1984. Neuromancer. Victor Gollancz, London.

Gill, J. R. & Stajic, M. 2000. Ketamine in non-hospital and hospital deaths in New York City. Journal of Forensic Science 45, 655-8.

Grant, I. S.; Nimmo, W.S. & Clements, J.A. 1981. Pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects of i.m. and oral ketamine. British Journal of Anaesthesia 53, 805-809.

Green, S.M.; Rothrock, S.G.; Lynch, E.L.; Ho, M.;Harris, T.; Hestdalen, R.; Hopkins, G.A.;Garrett, W. & Westcott, K. 1998. Intramuscular ketamine for pediatric sedation in the emergency department: safety profile in 1,022 cases. Annals of Emergency Medicine 31(6):688-697

Grinspoon, L. & Bakalar, S. B. 1979. Psychedelic Drugs Reconsidered. New York: Basic Books/Harper Colophon.

Grof, S. 1988. The Adventure of Self-Discovery - Dimensions of Consciousness and New Perspectives in Psychotherapy and Inner Exploration. New York: State University of New York (SUNY) Press.

Hall, C. H. & Cassidy, J. 1992. Young drug users adopt 'bad trip' anaesthetic. The Independent, 2 April, page 5.

Hansen, G., Jensen, S.B., Chandreash, L. & Hilden, T. 1988. The psychotropic effect of ketamine. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 20 (4) 419-425.

Hefez, A. & Lanyi, G. 1972. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of ketamine hydrochloride. The Israel Annals of Psychiatry and Related Disciplines. 10, 180-187.

Hejja, P. & Galloon, S. 1975. A consideration of ketamine dreams. Canadian Anaesthesia Society Journal . 22, 100-105.

Hirota, K. & Lambert, D.G. 1996. Ketamine: its mechanism of action and unusual clinical uses. British Journal of Anaesthesia 77 (4) 441-444.

Hope, B.T. 1998. Cocaine and the ATP-1 Transcription Factor. In: The Neurochemistry of Drugs of Abuse (Ed. Ali SF), New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 844, 1-6.

Humphries, Y; Melson, M. & Gore D. 1997. Superiority of oral ketamine as an analgesic and sedative for wound care procedures in the pediatric patient with burns. Journal of Burn Care Rehabilitation 18(1 Pt 1):34-36.

Hurt, P.H. & Ritchie, E.C. 1994. A case of ketamine dependence (Letter). American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 779.

Hustveit, O.; Maurset, A. & Oye, I. 1995. Interaction of the chiral forms of ketamine with opioid, phencyclidine, sigma and muscarinic receptors. Pharmacology and Toxicology 77 (6) 355-359.

Irifune, M., Shimzu, T. & Nomoto, M. 1991. Ketamine-induced hyperlocomotion associated with alteration of pre-synaptic components of dopamine neurons in the nucleus accumbens of mice. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 40, 399-407.

Ishihara, H. 1997. Uneventful total intravenous anaesthesia with ketamine for schizophrenic surgical patients. European Journal of Anaesthesiology 14 (1):47-51

Jansen, K. L. R 1989. Near-death experience and the NMDA receptor. British Medical Journal 298, 1708 - 9.

Jansen, K. L. R. 1990a. Neuroscience and the near-death experience: roles for the NMDA-PCP receptor, the sigma receptor and the endopsychosins. Medical Hypotheses, 31, 25 - 29.

Jansen, K.L.R. 1990b Ketamine: can chronic use impair memory? International Journal of Addictions, 25, 133 -9

Jansen, K. L. R 1993. Non-medical use of ketamine. British Medical Journal, 306, 601-602.

Jansen, K. L. R. 1996a. Neuroscience, ketamine and the near-death experience: the role of glutamate and the NMDA receptor. In: L.J. Bailey. & J. Yates (Eds.) The Near-Death Experience: A Reader. New York: Routledge, pp265-282.

Jansen, K. L. R. 1996b. Using ketamine to induce the near -death experience: mechanism of action and therapeutic potential. In: C. Ratsch & J. R. Baker (Eds.) Yearbook for Ethnomedicine and the Study of Consciousness (Jahrbuch furr Ethnomedizin und Bewubtseinsforschung) Issue 4, 1995; Berlin: VWB, pp55-81.

Jansen, K. L. R. 1997a. The ketamine model of the near -death experience: a central role for the NMDA receptor. In: Journal of Near-Death Studies 16, 1, 5-27.

Jansen, K.L.R. 1997b. Adverse psychological effects associated with the use of Ecstasy (MDMA) and their treatment. In: N. Saunders (Ed.) Ecstasy Reconsidered. London: Neal's Yard Desk Top Publishing Studio.

Jansen, K. L. R. 1997c. The Brain Drain. The Face. Vol. 3, No.3.(April), 166-170.

Jansen, K. L.R. 2000. Ketamine, Dreams and Realities. Florida: Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (in press: contact :

Jansen, K. L. R.; Faull, R. & Dragunow, M. 1989. Excitatory amino acid receptors in the human cerebral cortex: a quantitative autoradiographic study comparing the distribution of [3H]TCP, [3H]glycine, l-[3H]glutamate, [3H]AMPA and [3H]kainic acid binding sites. Neuroscience, 32, 587-607.

Johnstone, R. E. 1973. A ketamine trip. Anesthesiology 39, 460.

Kamaya, H. & Krishna, P.R. 1987. Ketamine addiction (letter). Anaesthesia, 67 (5), 861-862.

Ketcham, D.W. 1990. Where there is no anaesthesiologist: the many uses of ketamine. Tropical Doctor. 20(4) 163-166

Klausen, N. O.; Wiberg-Jorgensen, F. & Chraemmer-Jorgensen, B. 1983. Psychotomimetic reactions after low-dose ketamine infusion. British Journal of Anaesthesia 55 (4) 297-301.

Krumholz, W.; Demel, C.; Jung, S.; Meuthen, G.; Knecht, J. & Hempelmann, G. 1995. The effects of thiopentone, etomidate, ketamine and midazolam on several bactericidal functions of polymorphonuclear leucocytes in vitro. European Journal of Anaesthesiology 12 (2):141-146.

Krupitsky, E.M. & Grinenko, A.Y. 1997. Ketamine psychedelic therapy (KPT): a review of the results of ten years of research. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 29(2): 165-183. Reprints: Research Laboratory, Leningrad Regional Dispensary of Narcology, 19/1 Novo-Deviatkino, Vsevolozhsky District, St. Petersburg 188661, Russia 26 (e-mail:

Krystal, J. H. ; Karper, L. P.; Seibyl, J. P.; Freeman, G. K.; Delaney, R.; Bremner. J. D.; Heniger, G. R.; Bowers, M. B. & Charney, D. S. 1994. Subanesthetic effects of the noncompetitive antagonist ketamine in humans. Archives of General Psychiatry 51, 199-214.

Krystal , J. H.; Karper, L.P.; Bennett, A.; D'Souza, D.C.; Abi-Dargham, A; Morrissey, K; Abi-Saab, D.; Bremner, J.D.; Bowers, M.B.; Suckow, R.F.; Stetson, P., Heninger, G.R. & Charney, D.S. 1998. Interactive effects of subanesthetic ketamine and subhypnotic lorazepam in humans. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 135(3):213-229

Kugler, J. & Doenicke, A. 1994. Ketamine-anticonvulsive and proconvulsive actions. Anaesthesist 43 Suppl 2:S2-S7

Kumar, A.; Kumar, A; Bajaj ,A.; Sarkar P. & Grover, V.K. 1992. The effect of music on ketamine induced emergence phenomena. Anaesthesia 47(5): 438-439

Lahti, A. C.; Koffel, B.; LaPorte, D. & Tamminga, C. A. 1995. Subanesthetic doses of ketamine stimulate psychosis in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 13 (1): 9-19.

Leary, T. & Sirius, R.U. 1997. Design for Dying. London: Thorsons/HarperCollins.

Licata, M., Pierini, G., & Popoli, G. (1994) A fatal ketamine poisoning. Journal of Forensic Science, 39(5): 1314-1320.

Lilly, J. C. 1978. The Scientist: A Novel Autobiography. New York. Bantam Books/J. B. Lippincott. (now: Ronin Publishing)

Lindefors, N.; Barati, S. & O'Connor, W.T. 1997. Differential effects of single and repeated ketamine administration on dopamine, serotonin and GABA transmission in rat medial prefrontal cortex. Brain Research 759 (2):205-212.

Malinovsky, J.M.; Servin, F.; Cozian, A.; Lepage, J.Y. & Pinaud, M. 1996. Ketamine and norketamine plasma concentrations after i.v., nasal and rectal administration in children. British Journal of Anaesthesia 77 (2):203-7

Malinovsky, J.M.; Servin,F.; Cozian, A.; Lepage, J.Y. & Pinaud, M. 1996. Ketamine and norketamine plasma concentrations after i.v., nasal and rectal administration in children. British Journal of Anaesthesiology 77 (2): 203-207.

Malhotra, A.K.; Pinals, D.A.; Adler, C. M.; Elman, I.; Clifton, A.; Pickar, D. & Breier, A. 1997. Ketamine-induced exacerbation of psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairment in neuroleptic-free schizophrenics. Neuropsychopharmacology 17(3):141-150

Malhotra, A.K.; Pinals, D.A.; Weingartner, H.; Sirocco, K.; Missar, C.D.; Pickar, D. & Breier, A. 1996. NMDA receptor function and human cognition: the effects of ketamine in healthy volunteers. Neuropsychopharmacology 14(5):301-307.

Malhotra, A. K.; Breier, A.; Goldman, D.; Picken, L. & Pickar, D. 1998. The apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele is associated with blunting of ketamine-induced psychosis in schizophrenia. A preliminary report. Neuropsychopharmacology 19(5):445-8.

Malinovsky, J.M.; Lepage, J.Y.; Cozian A; Mussini, J.M.; Pinaudt, M & Souron, R. 1993. Is ketamine or its preservative responsible for neurotoxicity in the rabbit? Anesthesiology 78(1):109-115

Miranda, A.F.; Boegman, R.J.; Beninger, R.J. & Jhamandas, K. 1997. Protection against quinolinic acid-mediated excitotoxicity in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons by endogenous kynurenic acid. Neuroscience. 78(4):967-975

Modvig, K.M. & Nielsen S.F. 1977. Psychological changes in children after anaesthesia: a comparison between halothane and ketamine. Acta Anaesthesiology Scandinavica 21(6):541-544.

Moghaddam, B. 1994. Recent basic findings in support of excitatory amino acid hypotheses of schizophrenia. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. 18(5):859-870.

Moghaddam, B.; Adams, B.; Verma, A. & Daly, D. 1997. Activation of glutamatergic neurotransmission by ketamine: a novel step in the pathway from NMDA receptor blockade to dopaminergic and cognitive disruptions associated with the prefrontal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 7 (8):2921-2927.

Moore, M. & Alltounian, H. 1978. Journeys Into The Bright World. Massachusetts: Para Research.

Moore, N.N. & Bostwick, J.M. 1999. Ketamine dependence in anesthesia providers. Psychosomatics, 40(4):356-359.

Morita, T.; Hitomi, S.; Saito, S.; Fujita, T.; Uchihashi, Y. & Kuribara, H. 1995. Repeated ketamine administration produces up-regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the forebrain, and reduces behavioral sensitivity to scopolamine in mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 117(4): 396-402.

Nakao, S.; Adachi, T.; Murakawa, M.; Shinomura, T.; Kurata, J.; Shichino, T,.;Shibata, M.; Tocyama, I.; Kimura, H. & Mori, K. 1996. Halothane and diazepam inhibit ketamine-induced c-fos expression in the rat cingulate cortex. Anesthesiology 85 (4): 874-882.

Nakao, S.; Arai, T.; Mori, K.; Yasuhara, O.; Tooyama, I. & Kimura, H. 1993. High-dose ketamine does not induce c-Fos protein expression in rat hippocampus. Neuroscience Letters 151(1): 33-36.

Nishimura, M. & Sato, K. 1999. Ketamine stereoselectively inhibits rat dopamine transporter. Neuroscience Letters, 274, 131-4.

Nishina, K.; Akamatsu, H.; Mikawa, K; Shiga, M; Maekawa, N.; Obara, H. & Niwa, Y. 1998. The inhibitory effects of thiopental, midazolam, and ketamine on human neutrophil functions. Anesthesia and Analgesia 86(1):159-165

Olney, J.W. 1994. Neurotoxicity of NMDA receptor antagonists: an overview. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 30(4):533-540

Olney, J.W., Labruyere, J., & Price, M.T. 1989. Pathological changes induced in cerebrocortical neurons by phencyclidine and related drugs. Science 244, 1360-1362.

Olney, J.W., Labruyere, J., Wang, G., Wozniak, D.F., Price, M.T., & Sesma, M.A. 1991. NMDA antagonist neurotoxicity: mechanism and prevention. Science, 254, 1515-1518.

Oyama, T.; Matsumoto, F. & Kudo, T. 1970. Effects of ketamine on adrenocortical function in man. Anesthesia and Analgesia. 49, 697-700.

Parke-Davis Product Information Sheet: Ketalar. 1999-2000. ABPI Compendium of Data Sheets and Summaries of Product Characteristics, 1999-2000. London: Datapharm Publications ltd, p 1120-22.

Pfeiffer A.; Brantl, V.; Herz, A. & Hemrich, H.M. 1986. Psychotomimesis mediated by k receptors. Science 233, 744-776.

Reier, C. E. 1971. Ketamine -'dissociative agent' or hallucinogen? New England Journal of Medicine, 284(14):791-2.

Perel, A. & Davidson, J. T. 1976. Recurrent hallucinations following ketamine. Anaesthesia 31, 1081-1083.

Plourde, G., Baribeau, J. & Bonhomme, V. 1997. Ketamine increases the amplitude of the 40-Hz auditory steady-state response in humans. British Journal of Anaesthesia 78(5):524-529

Poole, R. & Brabbins, C. 1996. Drug induced psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry 168, 135-138.

Release 1997. Release drugs and dance survey: an insight into the culture. (contact: Release, 388 Old Street, London EC1V 9LT, U.K.)

Reuter. 1996. Party Craze for Cat's Drug. Guardian, July 2, 1996, p11.

Rogo, D. S. 1984. Ketamine and the near-death experience. Anabiosis: The Journal of Near-Death Studies, 4, 87-96.

Rothman, S.M, & Olney, J. W. 1987. Excitotoxicity & the NMDA receptor. Trends in Neurosciences, 10, 299-302.

Rozza, A.; Masoero, E.; Favalli, L.; Lanza, E.; Govoni, S.; Rizzo, V. & Montalbetti, L. 2000. Influence of different anaesthetics on extracellular aminoacids in rat brain. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 101, 165-169.

Sabom, M. B. 1982. Recollections of Death: A Medical Investigation. New York: Harper and Row.

Schorn, T. O. F. & Whitwam, J.G. 1980. Are there long term effects of ketamine on the nervous system? British Journal of Anesthesia 52, 967-968.

Schwender, D.; Daunderer, M.; Kunze-Kronawitter, H.; Klasing, S.; Poppel, E. & Peter, K. 1997. Awareness during general anaesthesia--incidence, clinical relevance and monitoring. Acta Anaesthesiology Scandinavica S. 11:313-314

Sharp, F. R.; Butman, M.; Aardalen, K.; Nickolenko, J.; Nakki, R.; Massa, S.M.; Swanson, R.A. & Sagar, S.M. 1994. Neuronal injury produced by NMDA antagonists can be detected using heat shock proteins and can be blocked with antipsychotics. Psychopharmacology. Bulletin 30(4):555-560/

Sharp, F. R 1998. Personal communication.

Shelton, G. & Sheridan, D. 1975. L.A. Breakdown. Freak Brothers 4. U.S.: Ripoff Press.

Siegel, R. K. 1978. Phencyclidine and ketamine intoxication: a study of recreational users. In: R. C. Peterson & R. C. Stillman (Ed.s) Phencyclidine Abuse: An Appraisal. Maryland : NIDA Research Monograph 21, pp119 140.

Sklar, G.S.; Zukin, S.R. & Reilley, T.A. 1981. Adverse reactions to ketamine anesthesia. Abolition by a psychological technique. Anaesthesia 36, 183-190.

Skovmand, K. 1996. Swedes alarmed at ketamine misuse. The Lancet, 348 (9020), 122.

Slaby, A. 1994. Handbook of Psychiatric Emergencies, Fourth Edition. Connecticut: Appleton and Lange.

Smith, J. A. & Santer, L.J. 1993. Respiratory arrest following intramuscular ketamine injection in a 4-year old child. Annals of Emergency Medicine 22, 613-615.

Sobel, R. M.; Morgan, B.W. & Murphy, M. 1999. Ketamine in the ED: medical politics versus patient care. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 17 (7): 722-5.

Soyka, M., Krupitski, G., & Volki, G. 1993. Phenomenology of ketamine induced psychosis. Sucht, 5, 327-331.

Stafford, P. 1992. Psychedelics Encyclopaedia. 3rd Ed., Berkeley: Ronin Publishing.

Strassman, R. J. 1984. Adverse reactions to psychedelic drugs: a review of the literature. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 172, 477-595.

Sybert, J.W. & Kyff, J.V. 1983. Ketamine treatment of status epilepticus. Anesthesiology 58, 203.

Taylor, P.A. & Towey, R. M. 1971. Depression of laryngeal reflexes during ketamine anesthesia. British Medical Journal ii: 688-9.

Thompson, G. E. 1972. Ketamine-induced convulsions. Anesthesiology 37, 662-663.

Thomson, A. M.; West, D. C. & Lodge, D. 1985. An N-methylaspartate receptor-mediated synapse in rat cerebral cortex: a site of action of ketamine ? Nature, 313, 479 - 481.

Tomlinson, A. 1994. Ketamine. World Anaesthesia OnLine. Issue 4 (1994) Article 5.

Topp, L.; Hando, J.; Degenhardt, L.; Dillon, P.; Roche, A. & Solowij, N. 1998. Ecstasy Use in Australia. Monograph No. 39. Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre.

Turner, D.M. 1994. The Essential Guide to Psychedelics. California: Panther Press (out of print, but may be found at:

Van der Kolk, B. A. 1997. The psychobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 58 Suppl. 9:16-24

Verma, A. & Moghaddam, B. 1996. NMDA receptor antagonists impair prefrontal cortex function as assessed via spatial delayed alternation performance in rats: modulation by dopamine, Journal of Neuroscience, 16, 373-379.

Vollenweider, F.X.; Leenders, K.L.; Oye, I.; Hell, D. & Angst, J. 1997. Differential psychopathology and patterns of cerebral glucose utilisation produced by (S)- and (R)-ketamine in healthy volunteers using positron emission tomography (PET). European Neuropsychopharmacology. 7, 25-38.

Vollenweider; F.X.; Leenders, K.L.; Scharfetter, C.; Antonini, A.; Maguire, P. ; Missimer, J. & Angst, J. 1997. Metabolic hyperfrontality and psychopathology in the ketamine model of psychosis using positron emission tomography (PET) and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). European Neuropsychopharmacology 7, 9-24.

Weil, A. & Rosen, W. 1983. Chocolate to Morphine: Understanding the Mind-Active Drugs. Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin, p136-140, 205-206.

Weiner, A.L,; Vieira, L., McKay, C.A. & Bayer, M.J. 2000. Ketamine abusers presenting to the Emergency Department: A case series. Journal of Emergency Medicine 18 (4): 447-451.

Weiss, J. 1986. Ketamine protects cultured neocortical neurons from hypoxic injury. Brain Research 380, 186-190.

White, M. J. & Ryan, C. 1996. Pharmacological properties of ketamine. Drug and Alcohol Review 15, 145-155.

Williams, K.; Dichter, M.A. & Molinoff, P.B. 1992. Up-regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors on cultured cortical neurons after exposure to antagonists, Molecular Pharmacology, 42, 147-151.

Winnicott, D. W. 1958. Collected Papers. New York: Basic Books.

World Health Organisation. 1992. The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. Geneva.

Young, L.A.; Young, L.G.;Klein, M.M.; Klein, D.M. & Beyer, D. 1977. Recreational Drugs. New York, Collier Books.

Zielmann, S. & Grote, R. 1995. The effects of long-term sedation on intestinal function. Anaesthesist 44 Suppl 3:S549-S558.

Zsigmond, E.K. 1971. Malignant hyperthermia with subsequent uneventful anesthesia. Anesthesia and Analgesia 50, 1111-2

Zsigmond, E.K. 1976. Arterial hypoxemia caused by i.v. ketamine. Anesthesia and Analgesia 55, 311-314.

1. Abstract and introduction

2. Ketamine and the dance culture

3. The doors of dissociation

4. Near-death and near-birth experiences

5. Toxic effects

6. Physical effects

7. Conclusions and references