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[Contents][Appendix 1]
[Reference 18][Reference 20]

E for Ecstasy by Nicholas Saunders
Appendix 1: Reference Section

19 Manchester RIP, Kaleidoscope, BBC Radio 4, 6/2/93
Ecstasy first arrived at the Hacienda club in Manchester in 1988. For ravers that year was a wonderful summer without media or police attention. It was the start of the rave scene which later spread to London and rest of Europe. The first Ecstasy club in London was Spectrum on Monday nights at Heaven. While straight Manchester was unsuccessfully trying to put itself on the map by bidding for the Olympic Games, a couple of bands and DJs had actually made Manchester the fashion centre of Europe for young people and the place where they all wanted to be. By 1991, applications to study in Manchester had risen by 30%. But 1991 was also the year that the atmosphere of peace changed to violence. Gangs started moving in, shooting each other in the battle for dominance in the drugs market.

[Contents][Appendix 1]
[Reference 18][Reference 20]
E is for Ecstasy by Nicholas Saunders (
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